7.07 - Aims

  • Aims: stating aims, the difference between aims and hypotheses. 

7.08 - Hypotheses

  • Hypotheses: directional and non-directional.

7.09 - Sampling

  • Sampling: the difference between population and sample; sampling techniques including: random, systematic, stratified, opportunity and volunteer; implications of sampling techniques, including bias and generalisation.

7.10 - Pilot Studies

  • Pilot studies and the aims of piloting.


7.11 - Experimental Designs

  • Experimental designs: repeated measures, independent groups, matched pairs.

7.12 - Observational Design

  • Observational design: behavioural categories; event sampling; time sampling.


7.13 - Questionnaire Construction

  • Questionnaire construction, including use of open and closed questions; design of interviews.

7.14 - Variables

  • Variables: manipulation and control of variables, including independent, dependent, extraneous, confounding; operationalisation of variables.

7.15 - Control

  • Control: random allocation and counterbalancing, randomisation and standardisation. • Demand characteristics and investigator effects.


7.16 - Ethics

  • Ethics, including the role of the British Psychological Society’s code of ethics; ethical issues in the design and conduct of psychological studies; dealing with ethical issues in research.

7.17 - Peer Review

  • The role of peer review in the scientific process.

7.18 - Psychology and the Economy

  • The implications of psychological research for the economy.


7.19 - Reliabliity

  • Reliability across all methods of investigation. Ways of assessing reliability: test-retest and interobserver; improving reliability.

7.20 - Types of Validity

  • Types of validity across all methods of investigation: face validity, concurrent validity, ecological validity and temporal validity. Assessment of validity. Improving validity.

7.21 - Features of Science

  • Features of science: objectivity and the empirical method; replicability and falsifiability; theory construction and hypothesis testing; paradigms and paradigm shifts.

7.22 - Reporting Psychological Investigations

  • Reporting psychological investigations. Sections of a scientific report: abstract, introduction, method, results, discussion and referencing.


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